Syamsul Rijal


This paper examines the current landscape of Hadhrami Arab Community in Indonesia. It aims to understand the internal fissures that affect the cohesion within the community. Some scholars contended that the conflicts taking place within the Hadhrami community are due to the Yemeni traditional stratification and nationalist orientation during colonial era. However, they do not include in their analysis the contemporary state of Hadhramis in Indonesia. This paper focuses on the contemporary era and argues that doctrinal contest and competition for religious authority have dominated the dynamics of conflict within Indonesian Hadhrami community. The paper will touch on the debates on the notion of Shi’ism among the so-called sayyids and Salafism among the followers of Al-Irsyad Al-Islamiyyah. It suggests that it is through these two currents of thought that the Hadhrami community in Indonesia not only exercise their power and authority, but also shape and transform their very identity.


Hadhrami; Conflict; Sunni-Shi’a; Salafi

Full Text:



Affandi, Bisri. Shaykh Ahmad al-Surkati: His role in al-Irshad Movement in Java in the Early Twentieth Century. MA Thesis. Canada: McGill University, 1976.

----------. Syaikh Ahmad Syurkati (1874-1943): Pembaharu & Pemurni Islam di Indonesia. Jakarta: Pustaka al-Kautsar, 1999.

Badjerei, Husein. Al-Irsyad Mengisi Sejarah Bangsa. Jakarta: Presto Prima Utama, 1996.

Bamualim, Chaedar S. Islamic Militancy and Resentment against Hadhramis in Post-Suharto Indonesia: A Case Study of Habib Rizieq Syihab and His Islamic Defenders Front. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East, 31:2 (2011), pp. 267-281.

Bang, Anne K. Sufi and Scholars of the Sea: Family Networks in East Africa, 1860-1925. London: Routledge, 2003.

Berg, L.W.C.V.D. Hadramaut dan Koloni Arab di Nusantara. Jakarta: INIS, 1989. Translated from Le Hadhramout Et. Les Colonies Arabes Dans L’Archipel Indien.

Boxberger, Linda. On the Edge of Empire: Hadhramaut, Emigration, and the Indian Ocean, 1880s-1930s. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.

Bujra, Abdullah. The Politics of Stratification: A Study of Political Change in a South Arabian Town. London: Oxford University Press, 1971.

DPP Rabithah Alawiyah. Anggaran Dasar & Anggaran Rumah Tangga Rabithah Alawiyah. Jakarta: Rabithah Alawiyah, nd.

Haikal, Husein. Indonesia-Arab dalam Pergerakan Kemerdekaan Indonesian (1900-1942). PhD thesis. Jakarta: The University of Indonesia (UI), 1986.

Hasan, Noorhaidi. Laskar Jihad: Islam, Militancy, and the Quest for Identity in Post-New Order Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asian Program, 2006.

Jones, Sidney. IPAC Report, 2 December 2013.

Jonge, Huub de. Discord and Solidarity Among the Arabs in the Netherlands East Indies, 1900-1942. Indonesia, 55, April 1993.

---------. Abdul Rahman Baswedan and the Emancipation of the Hadhramis in Indonesia. Asian Journal of Social Science, 32:3 (2004), 373-400.

Leaman, Oliver. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Islamic Philosophy. London: Bloomsbury, 2006.

Mobini-Kesheh, Natalie. Islamic Modernism in Colonial Java: The Al-Irshad Movement. In U. Freitag and W. Clarence-Smith (Eds.), Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1997, pp. 231-248.

----------. The Hadrami Awakening: Community and Identity in the Netherlands East Indies, 1900-1942. New York: Cornell Southeast Asia Program, 1999.

Noer, Deliar. Gerakan Modern Islam di Indonesia 1900-1942. Jakarta: LP3ES, 1980.

Pimpinan Pusat Al-Irsyad Al-Islamiyah. Mabadi Al-Irsyad dan Penjelasannya. Jakarta: Al-Irsyad Al-Islamiyyah, 2012.

Shihab, M. Quraish. Sunnah-Syiah Bergandengan Tangan Mungkinkah?: Kajian atas Konsep Ajaran dan Pemikiran. Tangerang: Lentera Hati, 2007.

Slama, Martin. Indonesian Hadhramis and the Hadhramaut: An Old Diaspora and Its New Connections. Antropologi Indonesia, 29:1(2005), pp. 107-113.

--------. Paths of Institutionalization, Varying Divisions, and Contested Radicalism: Comparing Hadhrami Communities on Java and Sulawesi. Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 31: 2 (2011), pp. 331-342.

--------. Hadhrami Moderns: Recurrent Dynamics as Historical Rhymes of Indonesia’s Reformist Islamic Organization Al-Irsyad. In Gottowik, V. Dynamics of Religion in Southeast Asia: Magic and Modernity (pp. 113-133). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2014.

Zulkifli. (2013). The Struggle of the Shi’is in Indonesia. Canberra: ANU E-Press.

Magazines & Websites

Gatra No. 26, 7 May 2009.

Albayyinat. (n.d.). “Apa dan Siapa Albayyinat.” Available at accessed on 20 October 2014.

Al-Irsyad. “Al-Irsyad Tidak Haramkan Pemilu dan Kafirkan Anggota DPR.” Available at accessed on 8 July 2015.

Al-Irsyad. “Pemerintah Hanya Akui Al-Irsyad yang Disahkan Mahkamah Agung.” Available at accessed on 7 July 2015.

Kiblat. “Habib Zein Al-Kaff: Habib yang Jadi Syiah Pengkhianat Rasulullah”. Available at accessed on 7 June 2015.

Kontras. “Desakan Penyidikan Komprehensif Kasus Penyerangan Pondok Pesantren Darul Sholihin, Puger, Jember, Jawa Timur.” Available at accessed on 7 June 2015.

Republika. “Kontras Desak Penyelidikan Kasus Penyerangan Ponpes.” Available at accessed on 8 July 2015.

Tv Shia. “Kronologi Kejadian Penyerangan PP. Darul Sholihin Dalam Rangka Peringatan Maulid Nabi SAW Ke-28.” Available at> accessed on 7 July 2015.


Achmad Zein Al-Kaff, Jakarta, 13 March 2013

Geys Amar, Jakarta, 11 February 2013

Hasan Daliel Alaydrus, Jakarta, 28 January 2013

Husin Maskati, Jakarta, 4 July 2013

Muhammad Alwi Al-Kaff, Jakarta, 12 March 2013

Muhammad Bawazir, Jakarta, 11 September 2013

Muhammad Quraish Shihab, Jakarta, 22 August 2013

Muhammad Rizieq Syihab, Jakarta, 4 April 2013

Said Sungkar, Jakarta, 16 April 2013

Syafiq, Jakarta, 12 August 2015

Syauqi Al-Gadri, Jakarta, 2 February 2013

Yusuf Usman Baisa, Jakarta, 4 July 2013

Zeyd Al-Hiyed, Jakarta, 16 April 2013

DOI: 10.15642/JIIS.2017.11.1.1-28


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Indexed by:


Creative Commons License

View My Stats

Journal of Indonesian Islam (ISSN 1978-6301 and E-ISSN 2355-6994) is published by the Postgraduate Program (PPs) and the Institute for the Study of Religion and Society (LSAS), State Islamic University (UIN) of Sunan Ampel Surabaya.

Journal of Indonesian Islam by is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright ©2020 State Islamic University (UIN) of Sunan Ampel Surabaya. Powered by Public Knowledge Project OJS.