THE RISE OF ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS-POLITICAL MOVEMENTS IN INDONESIA: The Background, Present Situation and Future

Hamid Fahmy Zarkasyi

Abstract


This paper traces the roots of the emergence of Islamic religious and political movements in Indonesia especially during and after their depoliticization during the New Order regime. There were two important impacts of the depoliticization, first, the emergence of various study groups and student organizations in university campuses. Second, the emergence of Islamic political parties after the fall of Suharto. In addition, political freedom after long oppression also helped create religious groups both radical on the one hand and liberal on the other. These radical and liberal groups were not only intellectual movements but also social and political in nature. Although the present confrontation between liberal and moderate Muslims could lead to serious conflict in the future, and would put the democratic atmosphere at risk, the role of the majority of the moderates remains decisive in determining the course of Islam and politics in Indonesia.


Keywords


Islamic religious-political movement; liberal Islam; non-liberal Indonesian Muslims

Full Text:

PDF

References


“Counter Legal Draft of Compilation of Islamic Law.” compiled by team chaired by Prof. Dr. Musdah Mulia. Research and Development of Religious Affair Department.

Alief, M. Ihsan. “Political Islam and Democracy: A Closer Look at the Liberal Muslims.” Asia Program Special Report. no. 110 (April 2003).

Barton, Greg. Gus Dur: The Authorized Biography of Abdurrahman Wahid. Jakarta: Equinox Publications, 2002.

Benda, Harry J. The Crescent on the Rising Sun, Indonesian Islam under the Japanese Occupation, 1942-1945. Netherlands: The Hague-W. Van Hoeve, 1958.

Bernard, Cheryl. Civil Democratic Islam, Partners, Resources and Strategies. Pittsburgh: RAND Corporation, 2003.

Brownlee, John Malcolm. Scripturalism and Religious Liberalism on Yogyakarta Campuses. MA thesis, Ohio University, 1997.

Collins, Elizabeth Fuller. “Dakwah and Democracy; The Significance of Partai Keadilan and Hizbut Tharir.” Unpublished paper. Fulbright Visiting Fellow Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta.

Cone, Malcolm. “Neo-Modern Islam in Suharto’s Indonesia.” New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies. 4, 2 (December 2002): pp. 52-67.

Dhume, Sadanand. “Hizbut Tahrir Using War in Iraq to Seek Converts.” Far Eastern Economic Review, 3 April (2003).

Dijk, C. van. Rebellion under the Banner of Islam: the Darul Islam in Indonesia. Leiden: The Hague-Martinus Nijhoff, 1981.

Esposito, John L. (ed.). Islam in Asia. Oxford, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, 1987.

----------. “Political Islam: Beyond the Green Menace.” Current History. (January 1994).

Faith, H. The Decline of Constitutional Democracy in Indonesia. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornel University Press, 1962.

General Election Commission of Indonesia. Analyzing Indonesia’s Election,1999. Jakarta: Indonesian General Election Commission, 2001.

Gier, Nicholas F. “Religious Liberalism and The Founding Fathers.” in Peter Caws (ed.), Two Centuries of Philosophy in America. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Publishers, 1980.

Hasan, Noorhaidi. “Faith and Politics: The Rise of the Laskhar Jihad in the Era of Transition in Indonesia.” Indonesia, 73 (April 2002): pp. 145-169.

Hefner, Robert W. “Islam, State and Civil Society: ICMI and the Struggle for the Indonesian Middle Class.” Indonesia. No. 56 (1993): pp. 1-35

----------. Civil Islam. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.

Hunter, Shireen T. “Religion, Politics and Security in Central Asia.” SAIS Review, 21, No. 2 (Summer-Fall 2001): pp. 72-81.

Husaini, Adian and Nuim Hidayat. Islam Liberal, Sejarah, Konsepsi, Penyimpangan dan Jawabannya. Bandung: Gema Insani Press, 2002.

International Crisis Group. “Recycling Militants in Indonesia: Darul Islam and the Australian Embassy Bombing.” Asia Report, No. 92, February. 22, (2005).

King, Dwight. Half-Hearted Reform: Electoral Institutions and the Struggle for Democracy in Indonesia. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.

Koentjaraningrat. Javanese Culture. Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1985.

Kurzman, Charles (ed.). Liberal Islam: A Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Liddle, R. William “The Islamic turn in Indonesia: A Political Explanation.” The Journal of Asian Studies, 55, no. 3 (August 1996): pp. 613-634.

----------. “New Patterns of Islamic Politics in Democratic Indonesia.” Asia Report Special Program. no.110, April (2003).

----------. Leadership and Culture in Indonesian Politics. Sydney: Allen and Unwin, 1996.

Naipaul, V.S. Among the Believers: An Islamic Journey. London: A. Deutsch, 1981.

----------. Beyond Belief: Islamic Excursions Among the Converted Peoples. New York: Random House, 1998.

Nuh, H. Nuhrison M. “Faham-faham Keagamaan Liberal di Kota Medan.” Paper presented at a seminar on Liberal thought at Rural Communities, Research and Development Bureau, Department of Religious Affair, 15 November 2006.

Porter, Donald. Managing Politics and Islam in Indonesia. London: Routledge, 2002.

Reardon, Lawrence C. “A Rational Choice Interpretation of Political Islam’s Challenge to Southeast Asia’s.” Paper presented at the New England Political Science Association, Annual Meeting, Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 30 April 2004.

Rosidi, Achmad. “Liberal Masyarakat Kota Yogyakarta.” Paper presented at a Seminar of Research Result about Liberalism Thought in Rural Community at Yogyakarta, held by Research and Development Bureau, Department of Religious Affair, Jakarta, November 2006.

Samples, Kenneth R. “The Challenge of Religious Pluralism.” Christian Research Journal, Summer (1990).

Smart, Ninian Worldview, Crosscultural Explorations of Human Belief. New York: Charles Sribner’s sons, n.d.

Suryadinata, Leo. “A Year of Upheaval and Uncertainty: The Fall of Soeharto and the Rise of Habibie.” Southeast Asian Affairs. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1999.

Tarrow, Sidney. Power in Movement: Social Movements and Collective Action in Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Tilly, Charles. From Mobilization to Revolution. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1978.

----------. Politics of Collective Violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Vatikiotis, Michael. Indonesian Politics Under Suharto. London: Routledge, 1994.

Wahid, Hidayat Nur and Zulkiflimansyah. “The Justice Party and Democracy: A Journey of a Thousand Miles Starts with a Single Step.” Asia Program Special Report. no 110, (April 2003).

Wald, Kenneth D. and C.D. Smidt. “Measurement Strategies in the Study of Religion an Politics.” in David C Leege (eds). Rediscovering the Religious Factor in American Politic. Aemonk, N.Y: R.E. Sharpe, 1993.

Wall, Thomas F. Thinking Critically About Philosophical Problem: A Modern Introduction. Wadsworth, Australia: Thomson Learning, 2001.

Windschuttle, Keith. “Edward Said’s Orientalism revisited.” The New Criterion. vol. 17, No. 5, (January 1999).

Zahrah, M. Abu. Tari>kh al-Madha>hib al-Isla>miyah, fi al-Siya>sah wa al-Aqa>id wa Tari>kh al-Madha>hib al-Fiqhiyyah. vol. 2. n.p.: Dar al-Fikri al-Arabi, 1987.

Electronic Sources

Abuza, Zachary. “MMI Concludes its first Congress Since the Release of Abu Bakar Ba’asyir.” Counterterrorism Blog, http://counter¬terrorismblog.org. Accessed on 06 July 2006.

http://www.alislam.or.id.

http://www.arches.uga.edu¬/~godlas/espo.html. Accessed on Septem¬ber 25, 2008.

http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=1765&I=1.

http://www.Islib.com.

Tamimi, Azzam “Hizbut-Tahrir Reflections on its Origin and its Ideas”, on http://www.ii-pt.com/web/papers/tahrir.htm.

Newspapers

“Kampanye JIL Bukan Sekedar Wacana.” Hidayatullah, 1st Edition/XIX, Media, 2006, Rabiuthani, 1427.

New York Times, 30 April 2002.

Soekanto, Santi W.E. “‘Liberal’ and ‘Literal’ Islam must sit and talk together.” The Jakarta Post, 1 March 2002.




DOI: 10.15642/JIIS.2008.2.2.336-378

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Indexed by:

    

Creative Commons License
JIIS by http://jiis.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/JIIs/index is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats