MUSLIM INTELLECTUALS IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY INDONESIA: A Socio-political and Educational Context

Khoirun Niam

Abstract


Various criteria have been formulated to deter­mine whether or not someone should be classified as an intellectual. These criteria range from patterns of recruit­ment to responses to various cultural or political move­ments.  This paper is devoted, however, to exami­ning the rise of Muslim intellectuals in Indonesia in the last three decades of the twentieth century. It highlights, as a subject of analysis, the significance of socio-political (and even religious) context as well as the educational background upon which the forma­tion of those Indonesian Muslim intellectuals is based. An important finding shows that the rise of Indonesian Muslim intellectuals in such a time frame resulted mainly from three vectors, movements in Islamic thought, socio-political relations between the government and the Muslim community, and developments in education. The educational background of Muslim intellect­tuals, as another finding encapsulates, is not monolithic since some of them pursued their studies in Islamic educational institutions, and some others in more general, public ones.


Keywords


Muslim intellectual; the renewal of Islamic thought; government-Muslims relation; Muslim student movement

Full Text:

PDF

References


“Empowering Islamic Higher Education Institutions.” Studia Islamika, an additional information, Vol. 4, No. 3 (1997): pp. 1-6.

Anwar, M. Syafi’i. Pemikiran dan Aksi Islam Indonesia: Sebuah Kajian Politik tentang Cendekiawan Muslim Orde Baru. Jakarta: Paramadina, 1995.

Aqsha, Darul, Dick van der Meij, and Johan Hendrik Meuleman (eds.). Islam in Indonesia: A Survey of Events and Developments from 1988 to March 1993. Jakarta: INIS, 1995.

Aziz, Abdul, Imam Tholkhah, Soetarman (eds.). Gerakan Islam Kontemporer di Indonesia. Jakarta: Pustaka Firdaus, 1994.

Azra, Azyumardi. Esei-esei Intelektual Muslim dan Pendidikan. Jakarta: Logos, 1998.

Barton, Greg. “Indonesia’s Nurcholish Madjid and Abdurrahman Wahid as Intellectual Ulama: The Meeting of Islamic Traditionalism and Modernism in Neo-Modernist Thought, Islam and Christian-Muslim Relation.” Studia Islamika. Vol. 8, No. 3 (1997): p. 325.

----------. Gagasan Islam Liberal di Indonesia. Jakarta: Paramadina, 1999.

Boland, B.J. The Struggle of Islam in Modern Indonesia. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1982.

Booth, Anne. “Repelita V and Indonesia's Medium-term Economic Strategy.” Prisma, Number 48 (December 1989): pp. 16-17.

Bruinessen, Martin van. NU, Tradisi, Relasi-relasi Kuasa dan Pencarian Wacana Baru. Yogyakarta: LKiS, 1994.

Brym, Robert J. Intellectuals and Politics. London: Goerge Allyn and Unwin, 1980.

Coser, A. Lewis. Men of Ideas. New York: London, 1965.

Dhofier, Zamakhsyari. “Lembaga Pendidikan Islam dalam Perspektif Nasional.” Prisma, Number 9 (September 1983): pp. 13-20.

Effendi, Djohan and Ismet Nasir (eds.). Pergolakan Pemikiran Islam, Catatan Harian Ahmad Wahib. Jakarta: LP3ES, 1995.

Fauzi, Ihsan Ali. “Pemikiran Islam Indonesia decade 1980an.” Prisma. (3 March 1991).

Hasan, Muhammad Kamal. Modernisasi Indonesia: Respon Cendekiawan Muslim. transl. by Ahmadie Thaha. Jakarta: Lingkaran Studi Indonesia, 1987.

----------. Muslim Intellectual Response to “New Order” Modernisation in Indonesia. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia, 1980.

Hefner, Robert W. “Islam, State and Civil society: ICMI and the Struggle for Indonesian Middle Class.” Indonesia, No. 56 (October 1993): pp. 1-35.

Hikam, Muhammad AS. “Anak Muda NU, Kultur Hibrid dan Negara.” in Kultur Hibrida: Anak Muda NU di Jalur Kultural. ed. by Hairus Salim HS and Muhammad Ridwan. Yogyakarta: LKiS, 1999. pp. 259-260.

HS, Mastuki. “Tat}awwur al-Ta`li>m al-’A bi Indonesia.” Studia Islamika, Vol. 4, No. 3 (1997): pp. 171-218.

Madjid, Nurcholish. Islam, Kemoderenan dan Keindonesiaan. Bandung: Mizan, 1995.

Mudzhar, Muhammad Atho’. Fatwas of the Council of Indonesian Ulama: A Study of Islamic Legal Thought in Indonesia (1975-1988). Jakarta: INIS, 1993.

Panitia Penerbitan Buku dan Seminar 70 Tahun Harun Nasution. Refleksi Pembaharuan Pemikiran Islam. Jakarta: LSAF, 1989.

Rahardjo, M. Dawam. Intelektual, Intelegensia dan Prilaku Politik Bangsa. Bandung: Mizan, 1993.

Ramage, Douglas E. Politics in Indonesia: Democracy, Islam and the Ideology of Tolerance. London: Routledge, 1995.

Rasyidi, M. Koreksi terhadap Drs. Nurcholish Madjid tentang Sekularisasi. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang, 1972.

Ridwan, M. Deden. “Tempo dan Gerakan Neo-Modernisme Islam Indonesia.” Ulumul Quran, No. 3, Vol. VI (1995): pp. 56-57.

Shils, Edward. “The Intellectuals in Political Development of the New States.” in Jason L. Finkle and Richard W. Gable (eds.). Political Development and Social Change. New York: London, 1971.

Tampi, Nico J. Trend Bacaan 1980an: Cermin Meningkatnya Telaah Keagamaan. Jakarta: Majalah Tempo, 1987.

Newspapers

Editor (Weekly News), 14 March 1992.

Editor (Weekly News), 14 May 1988.

Tempo (Weekly News), 29 July 1972.

Interviews

Interview with Azyumardi Azra, Jakarta, 27 August 2000.

Interview with Bahtiar Effendy, Jakarta, 28 August 2000.

Interview with Dawam Rahardjo, Jakarta, 24 August 2000.

Interview with Komaruddin Hidayat, Jakarta, 25 August 2000.

Interview with Muhammad AS Hikam, Jakarta, 16 July 2000.




DOI: 10.15642/JIIS.2008.2.1.39-68

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Indexed by:

    

Creative Commons License
JIIS by http://jiis.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/JIIs/index is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats