CONFRONTATION AND RECONCILIATION: Muslim Voices of Maluku Conflict (1999-2002)

Muhamad Ali

Abstract


This paper seeks to examine some of the perceptions and attitudes developed by Muslims in relation to the social conflict of Maluku. This paper argues that there were no single views among Muslims with regard to the conflict. Some Muslim hard-liners in general have demonstrated hostile perceptions and confrontational attitudes toward their perceived enemy. They constructed the conflict as a “religious war,” and demanded that the Indonesian Council of Religious Scholars (MUI) issue a fatwa that would allow Muslims outside Maluku to fight against the enemy in Maluku. The Muslim moderates, on the other hand, tended to avoid religious vocabularies, while attempting to work out peaceful solutions. The semi-official MUI, Nahdlatul Ulama, and Muhammadiyyah perceived the conflict as not religiously driven; they viewed the conflict in a more sophisticated way. They saw no need to wage a religious war and no need to issue a fatwa for a national jihad.


Keywords


Conflict; Maluku; confrontation; reconciliation; pela gandong

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alkatiri, Mansur. “Politik dan Kecemburuan Berbungkus Agama.” Ummat. No.35/15 March 1999.

Al-Shahrastany. Al-Mila>l wa al-Niha>l. Vol. 2. Cairo: Maktabah al-Husain al-Tijariyyah. 1948.

Andaya, Leonard Y. The World of Maluku. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press, 1993.

Azra, Azyumardi. “Pengantar,” in Merajut Damai di Maluku: Telaah Konflik Antar Umat 1999-2000. Jakarta: Majelis Ulama Indonesia & Yayasan Pustaka Umat. 2000. pp. x-xix.

----------. “Communal Riots in Indonesia: The Decline of Indonesian Nationalism and the Rise of Separatism,” in Chaidar S. Bamualim et al. (eds). Communal Conflicts in Contemporary Indonesia. Jakarta: Pusat Bahasa dan Budaya IAIN Jakarta & The Konrad Adenauer Foundation/KAF. 2002.

Barton, Greg. “Islam and Politics in the New Indonesia,” in Jason F. Isaacson and Colin Rubenstein (eds). Islam in Asia: Changing Political Realities. New Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers. 2002.

Chauvel, Richard. Nationalists, Soldiers, and Separatists: The Ambonese Islands From Colonialism to Revolt 1880-1950. Leiden: KITLV Press. 1990.

Djaelani, Abdul Qadir. Agama dan Separatisme menjadi Landasan Konflik Maluku dan Poso. Jakarta: Yayasan Pengkajian Islam Madinah Al-Munawwarah, 2001.

Esposito, John L. Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?. revised edition. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Geertz, Clifford. Islam Observed: Religious Development in Marocco and Indonesia. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. 1968.

Hasan, Noorhaidi. “Faith and Politics: The Rise of the Laskar Jihad in the Era of Transition in Indonesa.” Indonesia 73 (April 2002).

Horowitz, Donald L. The Deadly Ethnic Riot. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press, 2001.

International Crisis Group (ICG) in Peter Searle. “Ethnic-Religious Conflicts: Rise or Decline? Recent Developments in Southeast Asia.” Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 24, No. 1, April 2002.

Joseph, Suad and Barbara I.K. Origins (eds). Muslim-Christian Conflicts; Economic, Political, and Social Origins. Colorado: Westview Press. 1978.

Jubilee Campaign United Kingdom. “Analysis of the Sectarian Conflict in Maluku and Its Role in the Islamisation of Indonesia.” A Report Issued in December 1999.

Kastor, Rustam. Fakta, Data, dan Analisa Konspirasi RMS dan Kristen Menghancurkan Umat Islam di Ambon-Maluku. Yogyakarta: Wihdah Press. 2000.

----------. Suara Maluku Membantah, Rustam Kastor Menjawab. Yogyakarta: Wihdah Press. 2000.

----------. Badai Pembalasan Laskar Mujahidin: Ambon dan Maluku: Mei-Juli 2000. Yogyakarta: Wihdah Press. 2000.

Majelis Ulama Indonesia. Merajut Damai di Maluku: Telaah Konflik Antarumat 1999-2000. Jakarta: MUI & Yayasan Pustaka Umat. 2000.

McAmis, Robert Day. Malay Muslims: The History and Challenge of Resurgent Islam in Southeast Asia. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. 2002.

Putuhena, M. Husni. Buku Putih Tragedi Kemanusiaan dalam Kerusuhan di Maluku. Maluku: Lembaga Eksistensi Muslim Maluku. 1999.

Ratnawati, Tri. “In Search of Harmony in Moluccas: A Political History Approach,” in Chaidar S. Bamualim et al. (eds). Communal Conflicts in Contemporary Indonesia. Jakarta: Pusat Bahasa dan Budaya IAIN Jakarta & The Konrad Adenauer Foundation (KAF). 2002.

Reid, Anthony. “A Religious Revolution.” Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce 1450-1680, Vol. II.

Shihab, Alwi. “Pertemuan Islam-Kristen di Indonesia: Sebuah Tinjauan Historis,” in Islam Inklusif: Menuju Sikap Terbuka dalam Beragama. Bandung: Penerbit Mizan. 1998.

Suaedy, Ahmad, et al. (eds). Luka Maluku Militer Terlibat. Jakarta: Institut Studi Arus Informasi. 2000.

Steenbrink, Karel A. “The Pancasila Ideology and an Indonesian Muslim Theology of Religions,” in Jacques Waardenburg, Muslim Perceptions of Other Religions. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1999.

Tuasikal, Umar. Quo Vadis Modus Vivendi Antar Umat Beragama di Ambon. Jakarta: Himpunan Keluarga Muslimin Maluku. 2000.

Trijono, Lambang. “Peran Komunikasi dalam Konflik dan Untuk Perdamaian,” in Lukas S. Ispandriarno et al. (eds). Media-Militer-Politik: Crisis Communication: Perspektif Indonesia dan Inter-nasional. Yogyakarta: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung & Galang Press. 2002.

Van Klinken, Gerry. “What Caused the Ambon Violence?.” Inside Indonesia. No. 60. October-December 1999.

Newspapers and Reports

“Perang Agama, Siapa Bilang?.” Tempo, February 2-8. 1999.

“Bom Hidup Mujahidin Menunggu Komando.” Abadi, No. 18, March 17. 1999.

Kompas. March 4. 1999.

----------. July 30. 1999.

----------. April 10. 2000.

Media Dakwah. December 29. 1999.

Republika. December 17. 2002.

Tempo. December 20-26. 1999.

----------. March 13. 2002.

----------. February 10. 2003.




DOI: 10.15642/JIIS.2007.1.2.379-402

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Indexed by:

  

Creative Commons License
JIIS by http://jiis.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/JIIs/index is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats