THE “ACCULTURATIVE ISLAM” AS A TYPE OF HOME-GROWN ISLAMIC TRADITION: Religion and Local Culture in Bali

Kunawi Basyir

Abstract


Religion and culture are inextricably connected like two sides of the same coin because in understanding the religion properly often requires knowing the culture that shaped it, and vice versa. This paper reports on the research of how Islam has interacted with Balinese Hinduism for several hundred years. Using historical-anthropological study with a phenomenological approach, this study has revealed that religious traditions practiced by Balinese Muslims are identical to the Hinduism-based local culture. It means that the existence of local culture in Bali highly influences Islamic practices, which are certainly distinct from those in the Middle East, especially Saudi of Arabia, as the cradle of Islam. The expressions of Islam are resulted from the dialogue between Islamic traditions with local culture, Hindu tradition in particular, which shapes Balinese’s distinctive Islamic identity that is more progressive, tolerant, and egalitarian.

Keywords


Balinese Islam; Hinduism; acculturative Islam; local culture

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abdullah, Taufik. Sejarah dan Masyarakat: Lintasan Historis Islam Indonesia. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 1987.

Abd Rahman, Ezad Azraai Jamsari, Zamri, Adibah Sulaiman, Noorsafuan Che Noh & Mohd Hafiz Safiai, “The preminence of Ahmad ibn Tulun as the leading amir of the Tulunid Kingdom”. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 8, 6 (2019).

Adam, Charles J. “Islamic religious tradition”. The Study of the Middle East: Research and Scholarship in the Humanities and Social Science. New York: A Wiley Interscience Publication, 1997.

Ardika, I Wayan. Sejarah Bali dari Pra Sejarah Hingga Modern. Denpasar: Udayana University Press, 2012.

Asad, Talal. Geneologies of Religions. Baltimore London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

Azra, Azyumardi. Islam Nusantara: Jaringan Global dan Lokal. Bandung: Mizan, 2002.

Bagir, Haidar. An Irfani prespective on the relation between Islam and local culture and wisdom ‘Islam Nusantara’”. Epistemology and Methodology for A New Paradigm of Human Sciences in Islamic Perspective: Proceedings of the International Conference. 18-19 November 2015. Jakarta: Sadra Press, 2015.

Covarrubias, Miguael. Pulau Bali: Temuan Yang Menakjubkan. Denpasar: Udayana University Press, 2013.

Durkheim, Emile. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1947.

Eliade, Mercia. The Encyclopedia of Religion. New York: Macmillan Library Reference, 1995.

Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Group, 1973.

Glinka, Josep. Kerasulan dan Kebudayaan. Illinois: Divine Word, 1963.

Jamsari, E.A., A.D.M. Isa & M.Z.A.H. Ashari. “Sultan Muhammad al-Fatih: Ottoman’s great strategic planner”. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 20, 12 (2014).

Jamsari, E.A., Z.A., Rahman, A. Sulaiman, N.C. Noh, & M.H. Safiai. “The preminence of Ahmad ibn Tulun as the leading amir of the Tulunid Kingdom”. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 8, 6 (2019).

Jamsari, E.A., N.M. Talib, A. Abdullah & A. Sulaiman. “Serial warfare in al-Maghrib and al-Andalus (8-11th centuries CE) based on record of Spanish Islam by Reinhart Dozy (1820-1883 CE)”. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 8, 11 (2017).

Koentjoroningrat. Pengantar Ilmu Antropologi. Jakarta: Aksara Baru, 1986.

Koentjoroningrat. Budaya dan Masyarakat. Yogyakarta: PT. Tiara Wacana, 1987.

Kolb, Eva. The Evolution of New York City’s Multiculturalism: Melting Pot or Salad Bowl. London: Books on Demand, 2009.

Kymlicka, Will. Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Liliweri, Alo. Prasangka dan Konfilk: Komunikasi Lintas Budaya Masyarakat Multikultur. Yogyakarta: LkiS, 2009.

McDonald, Jason J. American Ethnic History: Themes and Prespectives. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007.

Mohd Nor, Mohd Roslan, Issa Khan & Mohammad Elius, “Analysing the conceptual framework of religious freedom and interreligious relationship in Islam”. Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies. 8, 2 (2007).

Mohd Nor, Mohd Roslan and Ahmad Dahlan. “The activism and survival of the Riau-Lingga ‘ulama’ in the Dutch East Indies colonial era”. Journal of Indonesian Islam. 12, 1 (2018).

Mulder, Neil. Inside Indonesian Society: Cultural Change in Java. Amsterdam: The Pepin Press, 1996.

----------. Agama, Hidup Sehari-hari dan Perubahan Budaya. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 1999.

Muljana, Slamet. Menuju Puncak Kemegahan: Sejarah Kerajaaan Mojopahit. Yogyakarta: LkiS, 2006.

Nugroho, Anjar. Dakwah kultural: Pergulatan kreatif Islam dan budaya lokal. Jurnal Ilmiah Inovasi, XI, 4 (2002).

Pals, Daniel L. Seven Theories of Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Parekh, Bikhu. Rethinking Multiculturalism. London: Zed Books, 2000.

Rabi’, Ibrahim M. Abu. Intellectual Origins of Islamc Resurgence in the Modern Arab World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Redfield, Robert. Peasant Society and Culture: An Anthropological Approach to Civilization. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1956.

Shahrur, Muhammad. Nahw Usul Jadid li al-Fiqh al-Islami. Damascus: al-Ahalli, 2000.

Shaw, Rosalind & Charles Stewart. “Introduction: Problematizing syncretism”. Anti Syncretism The Politics of Religious Synthesis. London: Routledge, 1994.

Syafaq, Hamis. “Islam popular: Studi tentang bid‘ah dalam konstruksi masyarakat Islam tradisional di Waru Sidoarjo Jawa Timur. Unpublished Ph.D Dissertation, IAIN Sunan Ampel, Surabaya, 2007.

Tibbi, Bassam. The Crisis of Modern Islam. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1984.

----------. Islam and the Cultural Acommodation of Social Change. Oxford: Westview Press, 1991.

Vickers, Adrian. Hinduism and Islam in Indonesia: Bali and the Pasisir World. Indonesia Journal, 44 (1987).

Wahid, Abdurrahman. Pribumisasi Islam dalam Islam Indonesia, Menatap Masa Depan. Jakarta: P3M, 1989.

Wirawan, A.A. Bagus. “Proses akulturasi Islam-Hindu di Bali 1380-1990: Telaah historis. Festival Istiqlal II Daerah Bali”. 17 September. Sahid Hotel Kute Bali, Indonesia.




DOI: 10.15642/JIIS.2019.13.2.326-349

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Indexed by:

    

Creative Commons License
JIIS by http://jiis.uinsby.ac.id/index.php/JIIs/index is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

View My Stats